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Saturday, January 25, 2014

Parliamentary Democracy: The road we travelled -Module 1-(Lecutres for the SC/ST,Minority Entry-in-Serive Coaching Centre, Kannur University)


Parliamentary Democracy: The road we travelled:Important amendments to the Indian Constitution ,-Module-IV-(Lecutres for the SC/ST,Minority Entry-in-Serive Coaching Centre, Kannur University)


Hi, getting visibility among core literary public is benchmark of publishing success and this message is part of an aggressive online campaign for the promotion and visibility of my two books [1] Political Internet and [2] Intimate Speakers among core reading public in online space.
It will be really helpful if you are able to help me forward, share, tweet, post, or tag this message or parts of this message among potential beneficiaries of the ideas in the books in your network, your friend’s network or their networks?

Or anyone should according to you benefit if they work broadly on anything related to social media, Internet, society, politics, cyber sexuality, Internet pornography, intimacies,  women and online misogyny, introverts, underprivileged people, Diaspora, cyberspace, Internet in education, International relations, digital politics, social media and state, public sphere, civil society, social capital, contentious politics and so on.

1. Political Internet: State and Politics in the Age of Social Media, (Routledge 2017)

Buy it on Amazon: 


Preview on Google Play: 


Preview on Google Books: 


Preview on Kindle:


Publisher Website:



2. Intimate Speakers: Why Introverted and Socially Ostracized Citizens Use Social Media, (Fingerprint! 2017).

Buy it on Amazon: 


Flipkart


Blog Review


goodreadsreviews



Contact the author


Biju P R

Author, Teacher, Blogger

Assistant Professor of Political Science

Government Brennen College

Thalassery

Kerala, India



My Books
1. Political Internet: State and Politics in the Age of Social Media,
(Routledge 2017), Amazon https://www.amazon.in/Political-InternetStatePoliticsSocialebook/dp/B01M5K3SCU?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&ref_=tmm_kin_swatch_0&sr=



2. Intimate Speakers: Why Introverted and Socially Ostracized Citizens Use Social Media, (Fingerprint! 2017)
Amazon: http://www.amazon.in/dp/8175994290/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1487261127&sr=1-2&keywords=biju+p+r 



Following is the list of all the important amendments to the Indian Constitution(Important for AILET 2013)

The first Amendment Act to the Indian Constitution was made in the year 1951
According to it, Articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 376 were amended and Articles 31A and 3IB inserted and Ninth Schedule was added.

The Constitution (24th Amendment) Act, 1971: It affirmed the power of the Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution. After this amendment, the President is bound to assent to Constitution Amendment Bill. Education was transferred to the Concurrent List by this amendment.

The Constitution (31st Amendment) Act, 1973: increased the elective strength of the Lok Sabha from 525 to 545. Under the Act, the upper limit of representatives of the States goes up from 500 to 525 and that of the Union Territories decreases from 25 to 20.

The Constitution (36th Amendment) Act, 1975: By this Act, Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union.

The Constitution (37th Amendment) Act, 1975: was passed by Parliament on April 26, 1975, to provide for a Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers to Arunachal Pradesh, the country’s north-easternmost Union Territory.

The Constitution (39th Amendment) Act, 1975: The Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha on August 7 and received Presidential assent on August 9, 1975. The Act places beyond challenge in courts the election to Parliament of a person holding the office of Prime Minister or Speaker and the election of President and Vice-President.

The Constitution (40th Amendment) Act, 1976: This Amendment has a three-fold objective: (1) It places beyond challenge in courts some major Central laws; (2) It gives similar protection to several State enactments, mostly relating to land legislation, by including them in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution; and (3) It provides that the limits of the territorial waters, the Continental Shelf, the Exclusive Economic Zone and the maritime zones of India shall be specified from time to time by law made by Parliament.
The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976: It was enacted during the period of internal emergency. It was passed by Parliament on November 11, 1976 and received Presidential assent on December 18, 1976.

The Amendment established beyond doubt the supremacy of Parliament over the other wings of Government; gave the Directive Principles precedence over the Fundamental Rights; enumerated for the first time a set of ten Fundamental Duties. It further imposed limits on the power and jurisdiction of the judiciary; raised the term of the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabha from five to six years; authorised the use of Central armed forces in any State to deal with law and order problems, made the President bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers and envisaged the establishment of administrative tribunals for service matters of Government employees and also other tribunals for economic offences. The Act also clearly laid down that no Constitutional Amendment could be questioned in any court of law.

The Constitution (43rd Amendment) Act, 1978: It received the Presidential assent on April 13, 1978. This Act repeals the obnoxious provisions of the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act passed during the Emergency. It restores civil liberties by deleting Article 3ID which gave powers to Parliament to curtail even legitimate trade union activity under the guise of legislation for the prevention of anti-national activities. The new law, which was ratified by more than half of the States in accordance with the Constitution, also restores legislative powers to the States to make appropriate provision for anti-national activities consistent with the Fundamental Rights. Under the Act, the judiciary has also been restored to its rightful place. The Supreme Court will now have power to invalidate State laws, a power taken away by the 42nd Amendment Act. The High Courts will also be able to go into the question of constitutional validity of Central laws thereby enabling persons living in distant places to obtain speedy justice without having to come to the Supreme Court.

The Constitution (44th Amendment) Act, 1978: The Constitution (45 th Amendment) Bill, re-numbered as the 44th Amendment came into force on April 30, 1979, when the President gave his assent. The Act removes major distortions in the Constitution introduced during the Emergency. The duration of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies has been reduced from six to five years—the normal term which was extended during the Emergencyunder the 42nd Amendment to achieve some political purposes. The Right to Property ceases to be a Fundamental Right and becomes only a legal right according to the Constitution 44th Amendment. The Act also extends, for the first time since independence, constitutional protection for publication of the proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures, except in cases where it is proved to be “malicious”. Another important feature of the Act is that any proclamation of Emergency need henceforward, be issued by the President only after receiving the advice of the Cabinet as a whole in writing. The President will not be called upon to act on the basis of advice by the Prime Minister on his own without consulting his Cabinet. Other safeguards provide that the proclamation will have to be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the members of both Houses of Parliament within a month. The 44th Amendment provides safeguards against future subversion of the Constitution for establishing an authoritarian regime. It contains provisions which are designed to make it impossible to impose the kind of emergency the country had experienced for 19 months.

The Constitution (45th Amendment) Act, 1980: The Act extends reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in Parliament and the State Assemblies and the representation of Anglo-Indians by nomination for a further period of 10 years.

The Constitution (46th Amendment) Bill, 1982: It seeks to authorise the government to prepare an authoritative text of the Constitution, in Hindi.

The Constitution (52nd Amendment) Act, 1985: The Act has made defection to another party, after elections illegal. Any member defecting to another party after elections will be disqualified from being member of Parliament or State Legislature.

The Constitution (53rd Amendment) Act, 1986: It confers Statehood on Mizoram and ensures against unnecessary interference by the Central Government with the laws relating to spheres of social relationship and community conduct applicable to Mizoram.

The Constitution (54th Amendment) Act, 1986: It enhances the salaries of Judges of High Courts and Supreme Court of India. The salary of Chief Justice of India will be Rs 10,000; Chief Justice of High Courts Rs 9000; Judges of Supreme Court Rs 9000; and Judges of High Courts Rs 8000.

The Constitution (55th Amendment) Act, 1987: It grants Statehood to Arunachal Pradesh which consequently became the 24th State of the Indian Union.

The Constitution (56th Amendment) Act, 1987: It confers Statehood on Goa and forms a new Union Territory of Daman and Diu. Goa thus became the 25th State of the Indian Republic.

The Constitution (57th Amendment) Act, 1987: It made a special provision for the setting up of the new State of Goa. Consequently Daman and Diu were separated from the former to form a Union Territory.

The Constitution (58th Amendment) Act, 1988: It provides for special arrangements with regard to reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes in the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya. By amending Article 322 the adjustment of seats has been frozen until 2000 A.D.

The Constitution (59th Amendment) Act, 1988: It empowered the Central Government to impose Emergency in Punjab when deemed necessary. Under the amendment, President’s rule can be extended upto three years. Earlier maximum period was two years.
The Constitution (61st Amendment) Act, 1989: It lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.

The Constitution (62nd Amendment) Act, 1989: It provided for the extension by another 10 years of reservation of seats in the Parliament and State Assemblies for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes and reservation for Anglo Indian community by nomination.

The Constitution (63rd Amendment) Act, 1989: It repealed Amendment 59 which empowered the government to impose emergency in Punjab.

The Constitution (64th Amendment) Act, 1990: It extended the President’s rule in Punjab by six months.

The Constitution (66th Amendment) Act, 1990: To bring land reforms within the purview of 9th Schedule of the Constitution.

The Constitution (69th Amendment) Act, 1991: Delhi made National Capital Region. The Act also made provision for Legislative assembly and a council of ministers for Delhi.

The Constitution (70th Amendment) Act, 1992: Before this act was made Article 54 relating to the election of the President provided for an electoral college consisting only of the elected members of Parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of the States (not of Union Territories). The amendment provide for inclusion of members of legislature of Pondicherry and Delhi.

The Constitution (71st Amendment) Act, 1992: The act amends the 8th Schedule to the Constitution to include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali Languages in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.

The Constitution (72nd Amendment) Act, 1992: To make temporary provision for the determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the State assembly of Tripura, until the re-adjustment of seats is made on the basis of the first census after the year 2000 under article 170 of the Constitution.

The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992: To ensure direct election to all seats in Panchayats; to reserve seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their population; and for reservation of not less than one third of the seats in Panchayats for women.

The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992: was made to ensure direct election to all seats in Nagarpalikas and Municipalities.

The Constitution (75th Amendment) Act 1994: It provides for setting up of State-level Rent Tribunals to exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except that of the Supreme Court, under Article 136 of the Constitution.

The Constitution (76th Amendment) Act, 1994: It relates to the Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutes and of appointments or posts in the Services under a State, for Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Supreme Court had ruled on November 16, 1992, that the total reservations under Article 16(40) of the Constitution should not exceed 50 per cent.
The Constitution (77th Amendment) Act, 1995: According to this Act, the Government have decided to continue the existing policy of reservation in promotion for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

The Constitution (78th Amendment) Act, 1995: It includes land reform laws in the Ninth Schedule so that they cannot be challenged before the courts.

The Constitution (79th Amendment) Act, 1999: It extends the reservation of seats for SC, ST and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for next 10 years.

The Constitution (80th Amendment) Act, 2000: It deals with an alternative scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the States.

The Constitution (81st Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that the unfilled vacancies of a year reserved for SC/ST kept for being filled up in a year as per Article 16, shall be considered separately for filling vacancies in the succeeding year and the previous list will not be considered for filling the 50% quota of the respective year.

The Constitution (82nd Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that nothing in the Article 355 shall prevent the State from making any provisions in favour of the members of SC/ST for relaxation in qualifying marks with respect to examination/job/promotion.

The Constitution (83rd Amendment) Act, 2000: The Act amended Article 243 M to provide that no reservation in Panchayats be made in favour of SC/ST in Arunachal Pradesh where the whole population is tribal.
Last edited by ani; 10-11-2012 at 05:31

Parliamentary Democracy: The road we travelled:Important Articles of the Indian Constitution,-Module-IV-(Lecutres for the SC/ST,Minority Entry-in-Serive Coaching Centre, Kannur University)


Hi, getting visibility among core literary public is benchmark of publishing success and this message is part of an aggressive online campaign for the promotion and visibility of my two books [1] Political Internet and [2] Intimate Speakers among core reading public in online space.
It will be really helpful if you are able to help me forward, share, tweet, post, or tag this message or parts of this message among potential beneficiaries of the ideas in the books in your network, your friend’s network or their networks?

Or anyone should according to you benefit if they work broadly on anything related to social media, Internet, society, politics, cyber sexuality, Internet pornography, intimacies,  women and online misogyny, introverts, underprivileged people, Diaspora, cyberspace, Internet in education, International relations, digital politics, social media and state, public sphere, civil society, social capital, contentious politics and so on.

1. Political Internet: State and Politics in the Age of Social Media, (Routledge 2017)

Buy it on Amazon: 


Preview on Google Play: 


Preview on Google Books: 


Preview on Kindle:


Publisher Website:



2. Intimate Speakers: Why Introverted and Socially Ostracized Citizens Use Social Media, (Fingerprint! 2017).

Buy it on Amazon: 


Flipkart


Blog Review


goodreadsreviews



Contact the author


Biju P R

Author, Teacher, Blogger

Assistant Professor of Political Science

Government Brennen College

Thalassery

Kerala, India



My Books
1. Political Internet: State and Politics in the Age of Social Media,
(Routledge 2017), Amazon https://www.amazon.in/Political-InternetStatePoliticsSocialebook/dp/B01M5K3SCU?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&ref_=tmm_kin_swatch_0&sr=



2. Intimate Speakers: Why Introverted and Socially Ostracized Citizens Use Social Media, (Fingerprint! 2017)
Amazon: http://www.amazon.in/dp/8175994290/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1487261127&sr=1-2&keywords=biju+p+r 




Indian constitution is the largest constitution in the world it contains originally 395 Articles, 22 parts, and 8 schedule. And presently it has 448 articles, 22 parts, and 12 schedules.
Ø Part 1- Art. 1 to art. 4:
· Art.1- Name and territory of the union.
· Art.2 - Admission and Establishment of the new state.
· Art.3- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.
Ø Part 2- Art. 5 to art. 11:
· Art.5 - Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
· Art.6- Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
· Art.10- continuance of rights of citizenship.
· Art.11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
Ø Part 3- Art.12 to art.35
· Art.12- Definition of the state
· Art.13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Originally, constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there is only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.
Some important Fundamental Rights are as:
· Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18
· Art.14- Equality before the law.
· Art.15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.
· Art.16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
· Art.17- Abolition of the untouchability.
· Art.18- Abolition of titles

· Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22
· Art.19 guarantees to all the citizens the six rights
· (a) Right to freedom of speech and expression.
· (b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
· (c) Right to form associations or unions.
· (d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.

· (e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
· (f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business.
· Art.20- Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
· Art.21-Protection of life and personal liberty.
· Art .22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
· Right against Exploitation: Art.23 & art. 24
· Art. 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
· Art.24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines. Under age of 14.
Ø Right to Freedom of Religion: Art.25 to art. 28
· Art.25- Freedom of conscience and free profession , practice and propagation of religion.
· Art.26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.
· Art.27- Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
· Art.28- Freedom from attending religious instruction.
Ø Cultural and Educational Rights:Art.29 & art. 30
· Art. 29- Protection of interest of minorities.
· Art.30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
Ø Art.32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

Ø Part.4 Directive Principal of states Policy: Art 36 to art. 51

· Art.36- Definition
· Art.37- Application of DPSP
· Art.39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
· Art.40- Organisation of village panchayat
· Art.41- Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
· Art.43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
· Art.43A- Participation of workers in management of industries.
· Art.44- Uniform civil code.( applicable in Goa only)
· Art.45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
· Art.46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST,and OBC.
· Art.47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public heath.
· Art.48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
· Art.49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
· Art.50- Separation of judiciary from executive.
· Art.51- Promotion of international peace and security.
· Fundamental Duties: Part IV-A- Art 51A
· It contains, originally 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002.
· Part.5- The Union Executive:
· Art.52- The President of india
· Art.53- Executive Power of the union.
· Art.54- Election of President
· Art.61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.
· Art.63- The Vice-president of India.
· Art.64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the council of States.
· Art.66-Election of Vice-president.
· Art.72-Pradoning powers of President.
· Art.74- Council of minister to aid and advice President.
· Art.76- Attorney-General for India.
· Art.79- Constitution of Parliament
· Art.80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.
· Art.81- Composition of Lok Sabha.
· Art.83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.
· Art.93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.
· Art.105- Powers, Privileges,etc of the House of Parliament.
· Art.109- Special procedure in respects of money bills
· Art.110- Definition of “Money Bills”.
· Art.112- Annual Financial Budget.
· Art.114-Appropriation Bills.
· Art.123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.
· Art.124- Establishment of Supreme Court.
· Art.125- Salaries of Judges.
· Art.126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.
· Art.127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.
· Art.128-Attendence of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court.
· Art.129- Supreme court to be court of Record.
· Art.130- Seat of the Supreme court.
· Art.136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court.
· Art.137- Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme court.
· Art.141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts.
· Art.148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
· Art.149- Duties and Powers of CAG.
· Art.153- Governors of State
· Art.154- Executive Powers of Governor.
· Art.161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.
· Art.165-Advocate-General of the State.
· Art.213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances.
· Art.214- High Courts for states.
· Art.215- High Courts to be court of record.
· Art.226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
· Art.233- Appoinment of District judges.
· Art.235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.
· Art.243A- Gram Sabha
· Art.243B- Constitution of Panchayats
· Art.280- Finance Commission
· Art.300-A- Right to property.
· Art.301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
· Art.302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commersce, and intercourse.
· Art.312- All- India-Service.
· Art.315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states
· Art.320- Functions of Public Service Commission.
· Art.323A- Administrative Tribunals
· Art.324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
· Art.325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
· Art.326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
· Art.338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.
· Art.340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
· Art.343- Official languages of the Union.
· Art.345- Official languages or languages of a states.
· Art.348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts.
· Art.351-Directive for development of the hindi languages.
· Art.352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).
· Art.356- State Emergency
· Art.360- Financial Emergency
· Art.361- Protection of President and Governors
· Art.368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.
· Art.370-Special provision of J&K.
· Art.393-Constituion of India.